The Red Square is the square where the most important historical and political events in Russia took place since the 13th century.
It is the most famous city square in Moscow and it separates the Kremlin, the former royal citadel and currently the official residence of the President of Russia, from a historic merchant quarter, known as Kitay-gorod (china-town). All major streets of Moscow radiate from this place in all directions, and the Red Square is often considered as the central square of Moscow.
The word “Red” in the name of Red Square is not aimed to indicate communism but derived from the Old Russian word 'krasniy' meaning beautiful. It is a well known place
for May Day parades and celebrations during the Soviet regime and is also the site of Lenin's Mausoleum and the colourful Cathedral of St Basil. Behind the Mausoleum is the Kremlin wall which contains a mass grave of Bolsheviks who perished during the battle for Moscow in 1917, together with the ashes of a number of well-known Russians, including writer Maxim Gorky and Yuriy Gagarin, the first man in space. The State History Museum stands at the north end of the square and contains a vast array of archaeological findings and relics pertaining to the history of the city. The length of the square is around 330 meters (1100 feet) and the width is of 70 meters (230 feet).
The Red Square ranks among the most symmetrical objects ever observed by scientists. “If you fold things across the principle diagonal axis, you get almost perfect reflection symmetry,” said study leader Peter Tuthill from the University of Sydney in Australia. “This makes the Red Square nebula the most symmetrical object of comparable complexity ever imaged.”
The Red Square is the most famous place in the city of Moscow, the capital of Russia.
The Red Square served as the site of frequent Soviet military parades and manifestation on major national holidays, such as the anniversary of the October Revolution,
International Workers Solidarity Day etc. The most remarkable military parade was held in 7th November, 1941. The Soviet troops celebrated the victory over the Nazis at this square in 1945.
During the Soviet era Red Square maintained its significance, becoming the main square in the life of the new state. Besides being the official address of the Soviet government, it was renowned as the location for military parades.
On May 28, 1987, a German pilot named Mathias Rust landed a light aircraft on St Basils' Descent next to the Red Square. In 1990, the Red Square was added to UNESCO's World Heritage List. In recent years, Red Square has served as a venue for high-profile concerts with many celebrities like Paul McCartney and Pink Floyd performing in this place.
The rich history of Red Square is reflected in many artworks, including paintings by Vasily Surikov, Konstantin Yuon, and others. The land that Red Square is situated on was originally covered with wooden buildings, but cleared by Ivan III's edict in 1493, as those buildings were dangerously susceptible to fires. It became a market place gradually and later, it was used for various public ceremonies and proclamations.
It is the most famous historical and political landmark. It is a walled-in complex of cathedrals, palaces and government offices, with several buildings open to the public, including the Armoury, the Patriarch's Palace and the State Kremlin Palace.
St. Basil's Cathedral
Built by Ivan in the 1550s, this intriguing cathedral bordering Red Square consists of nine separate chapels, each capped with its own individually shaped and colored dome.
Bolshoi Theatre, Moscow
It is the oldest theater in Moscow, rebuilt following a fire and later a hurricane. It magnificent both inside and out, and its resident opera and ballet troupes rate among the finest in the world.